From the biological-scientific classification point of view, Fior di Pesco belongs to the Rosaceae family, Amigdaleae tribe, Prunoidee section, Persica genus, vulgaris species.
General information on the Fior di pesco plant
Probably the Peach tree has Chinese or perhaps Persian origins.
According to the information in our possession, its diffusion in Europe is due to Alexander the Great, after the military campaigns he conducted against the Persian people. However, there are also those who hypothesize that he could have an Egyptian birth.
Among the countries of the world that are currently among the major producers of peach trees, thanks to an ideal climate, there is also Italy (particularly the regions of Lazio, Emilia Romagna, Tuscany, Campania, Veneto) together with the United States, the Spain, France and Argentina.
The first peach orchards organized in a rational way in our country date back to the 19th century, precisely in the Ravenna area. The size of the common peach is medium. It can in fact reach 8 meters in height. Its bark is ash-brown in color. It has sparse, spread branches. Its leaves are serrated and lanceolate. It can be defined as a small deciduous shrub. Between the end of winter and the beginning of spring it generates orange-red flowers which bloom for about 60 days.
It also produces small yellow apples which are used for making tasty jams.
The morphology of peach flowers
Peach blossoms are called hermaphrodites and have a typical pink color. They are born before the leaves. The chalice has 5 sepals. The stamens are many, up to 30.
This plant produces two eggs, but only one of them reaches fertilization. It is for this reason that the peach kernel has only one seed: the characteristic almond full of furrows that contains the amygdalin glycoside.
It should be noted that it develops naturally both in the sun and in shaded areas.
The fruits, known to all as peaches, very present on our tables, are rounded and have a longitudinal groove. Their skin can be hairless (in the case of nectarines) or even tormenting (simple peach).
The particular juicy and sugary consistency is determined by the considerable concentration of water, as well as the pectin contained in these fruits. The ripening of the peach fruit takes place around the second decade of May.
- peach blossoms">Tips for achieving a balanced and at the same time productive cultivation without stress for the plant
For the preparation of a peach orchard it is necessary to have grafted plants according to the so-called dormant bud technique, but you can also use grafted potted plants.
Today the known cultivation techniques can give life to different forms depending on the type of pruning practiced. The so-called production pruning has the aim of producing better quality fruits, which can therefore be marketed at more attractive prices for the producer. Already in the second year of cultivation the Peach tree gives numerous fruits. Starting from the fifth year it produces at full capacity, that is to say at the maximum of its possibilities. But it is precisely when this stage is reached that the grower must be able to demonstrate his professionalism, managing to maintain a certain indispensable balance in the organism of the peach trees.
As for the soil where the cultivation is to be carried out, it is good to take care to place some coarse material (eg pumice stone) which has the function of promoting the indispensable drainage. Expanded clay can work as well.
The watering. The enemies of Fior di Pesco: parasites
As regards the question of watering, one of the notable advantages offered by the shrub object of our discussion is that the Peach tree tends to feed on rainwater alone.
The period of its maximum development is in fact concentrated in the months of February-March and April, when the atmospheric conditions naturally foresee rain, with the exception of years characterized by a notable drought.
When cultivated in soils that have a pH that is too high, this plant can get sick with ferric chlorosis, that is, show clear symptoms of deficiencies in the production of chlorophyll (more or less as happens in the case of anemia for humans) by the plant, which in this way is destined to die slowly. In this case, the leaves of the Fior di Pesco turn yellow.
However, its main enemies remain scale insects and aphids. Mealybugs are very small phytophagous insects that have developed a particular ability to settle in plants. The scale insects cause serious damage because they deteriorate the tissues of the plant, even sucking its vital lymph: they can therefore be compared to leeches.
Aphids, on the other hand, are also known by the simpler name of plant lice.
These are phytomitic insects, that is organisms capable of sucking the lymph taking it directly from the cribrosi vessels, that is, from the lymph transport tissues of Fior di Pesco.
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